At the Multi User User-Agent was invented as an extension to the original Twtxt Discoverability Specification.


Users can discover their followers if the followers include a specially formatted User-Agent HTTP request header when fetching twtxt.txt files. The original twtxt specification covers only single user clients. Since is a multi user client, a single GET request is enough to present several users the same feed. However, the User-Agent header needs to be modified when several users on the same client instance are following a certain feed, so that feed owners are still able to find out about their followers.


Depending on the number of followers on a multi user instance there are two different formats to be used in the User-Agent HTTP request header.

Single Follower

If there’s only a single follower, the original twtxt specification on Discoverability should be followed, to be backwards-compatible:

<>/<client.version> (+<source.url>; @<source.nick>)

For example:

twtxt/1.2.3 (+; @somebody)

Multiple Followers

Starting with a second follower, the format changes. It aims to be fairly compact:

<>/<client.version> (~<who-follows.url>; contact=<>)

For example:

twtxt/[email protected] (~; contact=

The feed URL and nick from the Single Follower format are replaced with just a single Who Follows Resource URL, where all followers can be obtained. To aid parsing and quickly differentiate these User-Agent headers from other software, such as search engine spiders, the Who Follows URL is prefixed with a tilde (~) rather than the plus sign (+).

An optional contact URL or e-mail address may be included as well. If present, this should be either the client operator’s e-mail address or a URL pointing to a page were the client owner can be contacted.

Who Follows Resource

When requested with the Accept: application/json header, this resource must provide a JSON object with nicks as keys and their twtxt.txt file URLs as values. The Format of the HTTP response body is:

{ "<nick>": "<url>" }

For example:

  "somebody": "",
  "someoneelse": ""

Security Considerations

Users of multi user clients should have the option to keep their following list secret and thus to hide themselves from both the User-Agent as well as Who Follows Resource.

The Who Follows Resource could be easily guessable and thus must be somehow protected to not publicly disclose the followers of a certain feed to unauthorized third parties. Keep in mind, the User-Agent header is only available to the feed owner or web server operator. It must not be possible for users, who see such a Who Follows Resource in their web server access logs, to just swap out the own feed URL in a query parameter for a different feed and get all the followers of that feed. The easiest way is to use a reasonably long random token which internally is mapped to the feed URL and only valid for a short period of time, e.g. one hour. The token should be rotated regularly.